“This makes it possible for farmers growing Eucalyptus to compete in the construction timber market. In comparison, eucalypts reduced streamflow by 239 mm (over an afforestation range of 25–40 ha). There is anecdotal evidence that a large gum tree growing near water can suck-up 1000 litres of water a day but that is probably an exaggeration â others state that its more like 200 litres of water a day. These authors also suggested that canopy microclimate (especially vapor pressure deficit and leaf temperature) may confound relationships between Such establishment practices are likely to cause earlier reductions of low flows from the afforested catchments because the site is fully exploited by the trees sooner . Great article. Findings and recommendations emanating from the paired catchment experiments led to regulation of new afforestation to protect water supplies. Given their fast growth rates and coppicing ability, eucalypts have also been identified as potential feedstocks for lignocellulosic biofuels. Increased efficiency of water use may to some extent offset such detrimental change and provide the industry with a means of adaptation to a changing climate. Catchment experiments have shown that eucalypts cause a faster reduction in streamflow compared to afforestation with pines . South Africa, in anticipation of a large demand for land suitable for biofuel production, has developed a national Biofuel Industrial Strategy (BIS) . Further, these effects were more marked for eucalypts (90–100% water reduction) than with pines (40–60% reductions in the first eight years or so after treatment), but Smith and Scott  suggested these differences may diminish as the pine stands become well-established. Never Sheds All of Its Foliage. Other ways to browse. values than the other three clones. Stomatal closure in response to increasing VPD reduces water loss and generally results in higher WUE, but with a concomitant reduction in photosynthesis and tree growth [39, 50–52]. We are happy to post an credible articles that we think would be of interest to our readership. These models need to be validated against critical physiological measurements such as sap flow rates, leaf area index, and growth rates to improve our understanding of the linkages between growth and water use . Conversely, low water availability can lead to bigger relative reductions; for example, one catchment planted to eucalypts reached 100% reduction in the fourth year of the rotation under a dry cycle. These estimates vary with genotype, site conditions, weather, and tree age. Van Wyk, “The effect of afforestation with, R. E. Smith and D. F. Scott, “The effects of afforestation on low flows in various regions of South Africa,” in, J. D. Hewlett and L. Pienaar, “Design and analysis of the catchment experiment,” in, P. J. Dye, A. G. Poulter, S. Soko, and D. Maphanga, “The determination of the relationship between transpiration rate and declining available water for, B. W. Olbrich, “The verification of the heat pulse velocity technique for measuring sap flow in, P. Dye, P. Vilakazi, M. Gush, R. Ndlela, and M. Royappen, “Investigation of the feasibility of using trunk growth increments to estimate water use of, O. L. Lange, R. Lösch, E. D. Schulze, and L. Kappen, “Responses of stomata to changes in humidity,”, E. D. Schulze, “Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in response to drought in the atmosphere and in the soil,”, M. T. Tyree and J. S. Sperry, “Do woody plants operate near the point of catastrophic xylem dysfunction caused by dynamic water stress?”, J. M. Campion, P. J. Dye, and M. C. Scholes, “Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in, P. J. Dye, S. Jacobs, and D. Drew, “Verification of 3-PG growth and water-use predictions in twelve, J. H. Knight, “Root distributions and water uptake patterns in eucalypts and other species,” in, A. P. G. Schönau and D. C. Grey, “Site requirements of exotic tree species,” in, D. I. Boden, “The relationship between soil water status, rainfall and the growth of, H. L. Gholz, K. C. Ewel, and R. O. Teskey, “Water and forest productivity,”, J. J. Landsberg, K. H. Johnsen, T. J. Albaugh, H. L. Allen, and S. E. McKeand, “Applying 3-PG, a simple process-based model designed to produce practical results, to data from loblolly pine experiments,”, D. White, M. Battaglia, J. Bruce et al., “Water-use efficient plantations—separating the wood from the leaves,” in, P. J. Dye, “An investigation of the use of tree growth parameters to infer spatial and temporal patterns of moisture stress and reduced water use,”, P. J. Dye, S. Soko, and D. Maphanga, “Intra-annual variation in water use efficiency of three clones in kwaMbonambi, Zululand,”, D. Le Roux, W. D. Stock, W. J. Since the 1972 law, which dictated that timber growers needed to apply for planting permits to establish new commercial plantations, South African water legislation has undergone a series of refinements, as research results and simulation models have improved . However, there are better and more effective ways of controlling malaria. (ii)Species selection and extent of afforestation . Scott et al. Comparative water use efficiency (WUE) values among, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, P.O.
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