1 “Effects of Freshwater Inflows on Estuarine Structure and Function” CE 394K.3 GIS in Water Resources Fall 2010 Aubrey Lashaway Contents Introduction Methods o Study Site and Sample Collection Results o Delineation: Streams Networks, Stream Mouths, Watershed o Landcover/Landuse o Interpolation Salinity Chlorophyll-a and Phosphorus Project Significance and Conclusions Although these numbers sound impressive, they are almost certainly gross underestimates (Carlton, 2009). It is strongly affected by tidal action. Field data on species occurrence and abundance were collected by SCUBA diving along 10 transects of the Finnish, Swedish and German coasts, covering a salinity range from 3.9 to 27psu. Estuarine ecosystems and subsystems can and do exhibit alternate or multiple states of existence. Increasingly coastal management is shifting from a single-species approach to a more holistic one that encompasses the entire ecosystem, including humans (Hughes et al., 2010; Leslie and Mcleod, 2007). Valuation methodologies aimed at the assessment of goods and services that are not subject to market transactions because they are not rival or excludable – such as nonmaterial services – have undergone a steady evolution and refinement in the past four decades, and it is generally acknowledged that a range of sound methodologies for the valuation of the various aspects of nonmarket benefits in monetary terms is nowadays available to the investigator. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. Conversely, coastal lagoons and lakes in the tropics also have low physical variability but biotic diversity within these ecosystems is reduced due to the inability of marine species to colonize these habitats. Section 12.11.5 discusses the empirical evidence and policy implications of economic valuation studies from a management perspective, within the context of coral reef ecosystems (Section 18.104.22.168), marine protected areas (MPAs; Section 22.214.171.124), and small island developing states (SIDS; Section 126.96.36.199). Increased erosion due to increased area exposed to water flow; in the case of steep intertidal areas, increased probability for gravitational slope failure and cliff collapse. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Decreased density of large burrowers when structures occupy a high proportion of the sediment volume; decreased epibenhic predation on infauna. Ecosystem is the major ecological unit. Section 12.11.6 discusses the potential of the combination of data sets on primary valuation studies with a scaling-up value transfer methodology and presents an application to coastal recreation in Europe by means of meta-analysis. Estuarine and coastal habitats have been destroyed by coastal development, land reclamation, overfishing, invasive species, pollution, and climate change (Lotze et al., 2006). This theory has been supported by studies on other estuarine taxa, for example, fishes (Whitfield, 1994). Remane's species-minimum concept, which states that the lowest number of taxa occurs at the horohalinicum (5-8psu), was tested by investigating macroalgal diversity on hard substrates along the natural salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. We discuss some of the synergistic effects of ECE. A diverse array of land-based source pollutants are discharged into coastal environments, ranging from sediment to pharmaceuticals to plastics (Fabricius, 2011; Gorman et al., 2009; Islam and Tanaka, 2004), which cause many deleterious effects on ecological function and human health (Islam and Tanaka, 2004). Scores more are reported from other areas that have received attention (Rilov and Crooks, 2009). Increased potential for rock, shell, or coral fragmentation, release of sediment particles. Blackwell, Oxford, 286 pp. Invading species in the ocean come in all flavors and sizes, from the smallest virus to large reef-forming bivalves, forest-forming plants, and expansive macroalgal carpets. Estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) are some of the most heavily used natural systems globally; it is now recognized that the cumulative impacts from a range of human activities are threatening many of the world’s remaining ECEs and the many benefits they provide (Lotze et al., 2006; Worm et al., 2006; Halpern et al., 2008). Aboveground biomass CONSEQUENCES OF HYPOXIA ON ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION: ENERGY DIVERSION FROM CONSUMERS TO MICROBES DANIEL BAIRD,'14 ROBERT R. CHRISTIAN,2 CHARLES H. PETERSON,3 AND GALEN A. JOHNSON3 'Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa ; Day, J.W., Hall, C.A.S., Kemp, W.M., Yáňez-Arancibia, A., 1989. Coastal human population densities are nearly 3 times that of inland areas, and they are increasing exponentially (UNEP, 2006). Where possible, we cite estimates of the key economic values arising from the services provided by these ECEs. Similarly, the movement of invertebrates, fishes, and birds between these latter ecosystems is likely to be high and will result in elevated exchanges of both nutrients and energy. Understanding the estuarine ecosystems’ response to future changes in the forcing mechanisms, namely climate change, is vital to support decision makers in developing effective adaptation and mitigation measures. A diversity of organisms physically engineer estuarine and coastal ecosystems, affecting benthic and pelagic (aquatic), nearshore (terrestrial), and interface (intertidal) environments composed of sediments, soils, and rock (Table 1). Determinations about pre-invasion monitoring, species to target for eradication, effective restoration methods, maintenance of essential fish and invertebrate habitat, or preservation of threatened and endangered species all rely on understanding realized or potential impacts of invaders on ecosystem functions. The main elements of this theory, as applied to the zoobenthos of estuaries, are as follows: In estuaries, the environmental drivers usually show an unstable and unpredictable behavior. Ecosystem Stability Most ecologists describe ecosystem stability as the ability of an ecosystem to maintain its structure and function over long periods of time and despite disturbances. Academic Press, London, 617 pp. The, detecting anthropogenic stress in naturally stressed areas was, clearly demonstrated and discussed in detail. Mangroves are one of the world’s dominant coastal ecosystems comprised chiefly of flowering trees and shrubs uniquely adapted to marine and estuarine tidal conditions. Sediment mixing, breakdown of sediment aggregates, and creation of more or less ephemeral galleries via deposit feeding and organismal movement into sediments. Not surprisingly, then, these areas are also the sites of most marine species invasions (Rilov and Crooks, 2009). Increased abundance and diversity of colonizable surface, increased zonation. Wiley, New York, NY. They also represent hubs of international travel, commerce, and aquaculture. Our results show that as coastal waters become more turbid and nutrient levels increase biodiversity and ecosystem function decline. From 8/95 to 2/01, we investigated the ecological effects of intra- and inter-annual variability in freshwater flow through Taylor Creek in southeastern Everglades National Park. An Introduction to the Physical, Ecological and Cultural Systems of Coastlines. Institute of Estuarine & Coastal Studies. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Several authors have attempted to explain this low biodiversity and Sanders (1968) developed a theory based on the stability or predictability of the environment as well as its geological history. Estuaries are useful to human beings due to their high food potential.