(1995): The MOOD Metrics Set, In Proc. Software complexity metrics, for example, rarely measure the "inherent complexity" embedded in software systems, but they do a very good job of comparing the relative complexity of one portion of a system with another. A. Code-Level Metrics for OO Software Maintainability . 115--126. and J. W Daly (2001): The Impact of Design Properties on Development Cost in Object-Oriented Systems, In Proceeding of 7th Int'l Software Metrics Symposium (METRICS'01), IEEE CS Press, 2001. Software Eng., 27, pp. There exist compound metrics like maintainability index (MI) that help predict the maintainability of the application using the Halstead Volume, Cyclomatic Complexity, Total SLOC (source lines of code) and Comments Ratio : Briand, L. and F. Lanubile (1997): Proceeding of 2nd Intl. Google Scholar Microsoft Bing WorldCat BASE. degree from University of Southern California in 2010. 48--55. L. Ping, A quantitative approach to software maintainability prediction, Int. Assessing the maintainability of software product line feature models using structural metrics Bagheri, Ebrahim; Gasevic, Dragan 2011-01-01 00:00:00 A software product line is a unified representation of a set of conceptually similar software systems that share many common features and satisfy the requirements of a particular domain. Ebrahim Bagheri, Dragan Gasevic. 146--163, 1995. Software metrics have been much criticized in the last few years, sometimes justly but more often unjustly, because critics misunderstand the intent behind the technology. However, no well-established techniques exist for assessing the maintainability of such a system.  This tabular breakdown is inspired from Boehm et. Currently, there is no comprehensive basis for assessing and improving the maintainability of software systems. Sixth Int'l Software Metrics Symp., pp. and L. Zhao (2005): Maintainability Prediction: a Regression Analysis of Measures of Evolving Systems, Proc. Li, W. and S. M. Henry (1993): Object-Oriented Metrics that Predict Maintainability, Journal of Systems and Software, 23(2), pp. This publication has not been reviewed yet. As you can see one can’t (and shouldn’t) solely rely on the metrics output by automated tools. Top 5 Software Metrics to Manage Development Projects Effectively What are Software Metrics? Assessing the maintainability of software product line feature models using structural metrics Bagheri, Ebrahim; Gasevic, Dragan 2011-01-01 00:00:00 A software product line is a unified representation of a set of conceptually similar software systems that share many common features and satisfy the requirements of a particular domain. He uses his background in offensive security testing to help improve software and IT security based on industry best practices. Objectoriented metrics can be used to assess the maintainability of a software system. Comments and Reviews. So, how can you measure the maintainability of your application? 2004, pp. Tags lit_review maintainability to_read. M. Lorenz, M. and J. Kidd (1994): Object-Oriented Software Metrics, Prentice Hall, 1994. Abstract: Software metrics have been much criticized in the last few years, sometimes justly but more often unjustly, because critics misunderstand the intent behind the technology. It is thus vital to know which dimension of maintainability is more important for your maintenance team when measuring the quality of your application and carry out the reviews and refactoring with those in mind. Software metrics have been much criticized in the last few years, sometimes justly but more often unjustly, because critics misunderstand the intent behind the technology. Visit our offices by appointment in Los Angeles, California. Aggarwal, K. K., Y. Singh, A. Kaur and R. Malhotra (2006): Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Maintainability using Object-Oriented Metrics, Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology, 15, pp. Mancl, D., and W. Havanas (1990): A study of the impact of C++ on software maintenance, Proceedings of IEEE conference on Software Maintenance, November 1990, pp. Metrics for Assessing a Software System's Maintainability. architecture of software systems are set frequently. Tang, M. H., M.H. The answer to this question is non-trivial and requires further understanding of what does it mean for an application to be maintainable? This model described the equation between complexity metrics and maintainability, which can be used to assess the . This paper provides a review of this literature and the related state-of-the-art. Tang M., M. Kao and M. Chen (1998): An Empirical Study on Object-Oriented Metrics, 6th IEEE International Symposium on Software Metrics, 1998. Journal of Systems and Software … The results indicate Then a case study of analyzing Java based open source software using CK metrics to evaluate quality is presented. 2013–2020 Quandary Peak Research, Inc. Galorath SEER – Software Maintenance Cost, software expert witnesses and consultants, Social Media Takes Active Stance Against Election Misinformation, The Look Inside America’s Voting Technology, V is the average Halstead Volume per module, G is the average Cyclomatic Complexity per module, L is the average number of Source Lines of Code (SLOC) per module, C is the average number of comment lines per module. … Pressman, R. S. (2005): Software Engineering - A Practitioner's Approach, 7th ed. Dynamic metrics are usually quite closely related to software quality attributes. If the code is represented as … 22 Case Study Thoughts Metrics seem attractive, can be easy to … based on the status of the corresponding source code. These may or may not be the exact same ones that you thought of, but there will be a great deal of overlap. A methodology for assessing, evaluating and, selecting software metrics for predicting software maintainability is presented. Complementarily, the software maintainability is considered a software attribute playing an important role in quality level. Henry, S. M., M. Humphrey and J. Lewis (1990): Evaluation of the Maintainability of Object-Oriented Software, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer and Communication Systems, 1990. It also proposes a maintainability model that is based on the analysis of the relationship between object-oriented metrics and maintainability. P. Oman, and J. Hagemeister. 251--266, 1994. Proceedings International Conference on Software Mainatenance (ICSM), 1992, pp 337-344. 476--493. 337–344 Google Scholar The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, NY, USA, 1990. 2.4 Maintainability Metrics Cyclomatic Complexity Number (CCN): This was one of the ﬁrst complexity metrics [McCabe 76]. proposed the Maintainability Index (MI) , : an attempt to objectively determine the maintainability of software systems based upon the status of the source code. Developers rated a number of HP systems Statistical regression analysis to find key factors among 40 candidate metrics [ Oman and Hagemeister. Dromey, R. G. (195): A model for software product quality, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 2, pp. Traditionally, this activity is performed by extracting source code metrics using data mining techniques.  From Galorath SEER: Galorath SEER – Software Maintenance Cost. This information may exist externally as a traceability document, but even having some information in the source code – either by the way it’s laid out into packages/modules, naming conventions or having READMEs in every package explaining the role of the classes, can be immensely valuable. Quality models have been proposed to solve this problem. Karlssons, E. (1995): Software Reuse-A Holistic Approach, John Wiley & Sons, 1995. To answer this question let’s dissect the definition of maintainability further. L. Ping, A quantitative approach to software maintainability prediction, Int. Conf. Consequently, the decision-making process about which metrics can be adopted in experiments on … Briand, L.C. The model is evaluated by applying it to industrial software systems. Assessing Software Maintainability Based on Class ECOOP'95 Workshop on Metrics, (1995). Workshop on Empirical Studies of Software maintenance (ESS'97), ISBN 3-00-002030-6, 1997, Briand, L. C., J. W. Daly, V. Porter and J. Wust (1998): A Comprehensive Empirical Validation of Product Measures for Object-Oriented Systems, Technical Report ISERN-98-07, 1998. Briand L.C. 9th International Symposium on Software Metrics (METRICS'03), 3-5 Sept., 2003, pp. Currently, there is no comprehensive basis for assessing and improving the maintainability of software systems. Software maintenance is often expensive; hence, strategies for assessing the maintainability of complete software systems are important. “Metrics for assessing a software system’s maintainability”. Disinformation campaigns were a prominent part of the lead-up to both 2016 and 2020’s elections,…, The 2020 United States presidential election is here, and many readers are probably already exhausted by it. Dr. Ali Khosh is a computer scientist, entrepreneur and technology executive with years of experience at leading tech companies including Microsoft, Yahoo and Samsung. Software complexity metrics, for example, rarely measure the Harrison R., S. J. Counsell and R. Nithi (2000): Experimental Assessment of the Effect of Inheritance on the Maintainability of Object-Oriented Systems, The Journal of Systems and Software, 52, 2000, pp. Proc. Software maintainability is defined as the ease with which a software system or a component can be modified, to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment. I hope this article proves useful to help expand your mind on what all to look at when measuring maintainability along with throwing light on the non-triviality of measuring the quality of source code. Measuring software maintainability is non-trivial as there is no single metric to state if one application is more maintainable than the other and there is no single tool that can analyze your code repository and provide you with an accurate answer either. Software maintainability prediction in the earlier stages of software development involves the construction of models for the accurate estimation of maintenance effort. Bandi, R. K., V. K. Vaishnavi and D.E. As much as 70-80% of the Total Ownership Cost (TCO) of the software can be attributed to maintenance costs alone! Li, W. (1992): Applying Software Maintenance Metrics in the Object Oriented Software Development Life Cycle, Ph.D. Dissertation, September 1992, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1992. Their quality model does not address maintainability as they focus on attributes of service design artifacts, but a number of the proposed design properties and metrics will be adopted here. Int'l Conf. When the analyzed system is little … 630--650, 2001. In his role as a software expert, Mr. Kukreja analyzes source code of large scale software applications to ascertain the overall maintainability of the application. This alert has been successfully added and will be sent to: You will be notified whenever a record that you have chosen has been cited. Assessing the quality of software can be a difficult, often subjective process. Maintainability is a key quality attribute of successful software systems. Prechelt L., B. Unger, M. Philippsen and W. Tichy (2003): A controlled experiment on inheritance depth as a cost factor for code maintenance, The Journal of Systems and Software, 65, 2003, pp. (November 1992) search on. Google Scholar; 122. Periodical Home; Latest Issue; Archive; Authors; Affiliations; Home Browse by Title Periodicals Journal of Systems and Software Vol. IEEE (1998): Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, pp. In this context, Object-Oriented Software Maintainability (OOSM) has been studied through years, and many researchers have proposed a large number of metrics to measure it. 7th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering (WCRE'00), Brisbane, Australia,, 23-25 Nov., 2000, pp. 21st IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, 26-29 Sept. 2005, pp. Chidamber, S. R., D.P. 20th Int'l Conf. Google Scholar Microsoft Bing WorldCat BASE. The ACM Digital Library is published by the Association for Computing Machinery. Metrics for assessing a software system's maintainability. In this paper we first introduce the theoretical concept of object oriented metrics, specifically of CK metrics suite. Cartwright M. (1998): An Empirical view of inheritance, Information and Software Technology, 40(4), 1998, pp. Each of the facets can (and is) broken down further for a more granular comparison. Copyright © 2020 ACM, Inc. Abreu F. B. The use of this metric is debatable but could be used in conjunction with the above metrics or your team could create a compound metric based on the above dimensions! Bansiya J. and C. G. Davis (2002): A Hierarchical Model for Object-Oriented Design Quality Assessment, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 2002. Object-oriented design has been shown to be a useful technique to develop and deliver quality software. IEEE (1989): Standards for a Software Quality Metrics Methodology, P-1061/D20, IEEE Press, New York, 1989. Comments and Reviews (0) There is no review or comment yet. Jung, H. W., S. G. Kim, and C. S. Chung (2004): Measuring Software Quality: A Survey of ISO/IEC 9126. Assessing software maintainability. 21 Maintainability Index: Origins Developers rated a number of HP systems Statistical regression analysis to find key factors among 40 candidate metrics [ Oman and Hagemeister. Send us an email, we often respond within one business day. Assessing maintainability is a non-trivial task considering that there are numerous and diverse criteria that influence the maintenance effort required for a software project. It may therefore not be feasible to establish once and for all the factors that affect the maintainability of software systems. 63--69, Matinlassi, M. and N. Eila (2003) : The Impact of Maintainability on Component Based Software System, Proceeding of the 29th EUROMICRO Conference 'New waves in System Architecture', 2003. For these metrics, the average per module is taken, and combined into a single formula: To arrive at this for… Li, W. and S. M. Henry (1993): Maintenance metrics for the object oriented paradigm, in Proceedings of the First International Software Metrics Symposium, IEEE, pp. Proc. 629--637. India. of well-known metrics like lines of code, Halstead volume , or McCabe's Cyclomatic. This study aims at systematically reviewing the prediction models from January 1990 to October 2019 for predicting software maintainability. 343--352. Chidamber, S. R. and C. F. Kemerer (1994): A Metrics Suite for Object Oriented Design, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 20(6), 1994, pp. Isaac Pflaum has more than a decade of experience as a scientist, attorney, and consultant to Fortune 100 technology companies and state and local government agencies. Yau, S.S. and J. S. Collofello (1985): Design Stability Measures for Software Maintenance, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, September 1985, pp. 68--86. Assessment of maintainability metrics for object-oriented software system, All Holdings within the ACM Digital Library. Mr. Kukreja’s primary areas of expertise are in software economics, requirements engineering, stakeholder negotiations and software architecture/development. Bandini, S., F. D. Paoli, S. Manzoni, P. Mereghetti (2002): A support system to COTSbased software development for business services , Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Software Engineering and Know ledge Engineering, Ischia, Italy, 27, pp. Peercy, D. (1981): A Software Maintainability Evaluation Methodology, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 7, July 1981, pp. Top 5 Software Metrics to Manage Development Projects Effectively What are Software Metrics? P. Oman, J. Hagemeister, Metrics for assessing a software system’s maintainability, conference on software maintenance (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, 1992), pp. 452--455, 1998. Metrics for Assessing a Software System's Maintainability… Software metrics have been much criticized in the last few years, sometimes justly but more often unjustly, because critics misunderstand the intent behind the technology. Software development metrics are quantitative measurements of a software product or project, which can help management understand software performance, quality, or the productivity and efficiency of software … Daly J., Brooks A., J. Miller, M. Roper and M. Wood (1996): An Empirical Study Evaluating Depth of Inheritance on Maintainability of Object-Oriented Software, Empirical Software Engineering, 1(2), 1996, pp. Quality models have been proposed to solve this problem. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Research › peer-review. Alshayeb, M. and M. Li (2003): An Empirical Validation of Object-Oriented Metrics in Two Different Iterative Software Processes, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering archive, 29, pp.1043--1049. McCall, J. Users. 109--132. SOME OBSERVATION ON MAINTAINABILITY METRICS AND MODELS FOR WEB BASED SOFTWARE SYSTEM Anil Kumar Malviya1, ... assessing the WA Maintainability. on Software Maintenance, page 337-344. Imagine you have access to the source code of two applications – A and B. Let’s say you also have the super human ability to compare both of them in a small span of time. A., P. K. Richards and G. F. Walters (1977): Factors in Software Quality, Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service, 1977. Briand L. C., S. Morasca and V. Basili (1996): Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 22(6), 1996, pp. Many software metrics have been proposed as indicators for software product quality , . The Software Maintainability Index (MI) is a single-value indicator for the maintainability of a software system. To estimate the maintenance cost and maintainability of software, many software metrics and models have been proposed in the literature. 173--179. This metric is obtained by counting the number of independent execution paths inside a method or function. You can write one! Software Maintenance, 1992, pp. Maintainability is a key quality attribute of successful software systems. Also, not every criterion is equally important. Chen (1999): An Empirical Study on Object Oriented Metrics, Proc. Ghezzi, C., M. Jazayeri and D. Mandrioli (1991): Fundamental of Software Enginnering, Prentice-Hall, NJ, USA, 1991. Berns, Assessing software maintainability, ACM Commun. (1988): Evaluating Software Complexity Measures, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, September 1988, pp. Quandary Peak Research. Comments and Reviews. Abstract: Maintenance of a computer-based system accounts for a large proportion of the total system cost. Quandary Peak Research provides software expert witnesses and consultants to clients involved in patent matters, breach-of-contract lawsuits, and other software-related litigation. A software product line is a uniﬁed representation of a set of conceptually similar software systems that share many common features and satisfy the … According to definition of maintainability in software engineering “Maintainability means fixing, updating, servicing and to modify the system or update the software for performance improvements or for the correction of faults”. Grady, R. B. The techniques we used are described, and their strengths and weaknesses discussed. 245--273. (1990): Design Measurement: Some Lessons Learned, IEEE Software, March 1990, pp. A. Code-Level Metrics for OO Software Maintainability . systems which are believed to affect maintenance  . Software maintainability prediction in the earlier stages of software development involves the construction of models for the accurate estimation of maintenance effort. Some amount of automation is necessary. Quandary Peak Research, November 3, 2020 • by Resources for measuring and assessing software quality. 17--25. Google Scholar; 122. This study aims at systematically reviewing the prediction models from January 1990 to October 2019 for predicting software maintainability. 263--275. Metrics for assessing a software system's maintainability. 1. ICSM 1992. ] The table below, towards the end of the article, shows a detailed breakdown of the above dimensions of maintainability and elaborates on their relevance to measuring the quality of the source code : There is no single metric that can accurately capture the notion of maintainability of an application. Henry and Wake proposes a multiple regression model based on the defect correction history of a software system . Definition 1: -Maintainability is most commonly referred to as “the ease in which a system (for instance, a website or web application) can be modified or extended” (via Jeremy D. Miller). Bruntink, M., A. Deursen (2004): Predicting Class Testability Using Object-Oriented Metrics, Source Code Analysis and Manipulation, Fourth IEEE International Workshop, 2004. Muthanna, S., K. Kontogiannis, K. Ponnambalam, and B. Stacey (2000): A Maintainability Model for Industrial Software Systems Using Design Level Metrics, Proc. P. Oman and J. Hagemeister, Metrics for assessing a software system’s maintainability, in IEEE Conf. Genero, M., E. Manso, and G. Cantone (2003): Building UML Class Diagram Maintainability Prediction Models Based on Early Metrics, Proc. 19--23, 1995. Very few models are there for web based applications. Rombach, H.D. 337–344. ,Assessing Software ,Maintainability ,Given ,the above hierarchical structure ,of ,software ,maintainability metrics, the next ,step ,in assessing the ,maintainability ,of a target ,software ,system ,is to combine ,the metrics ,into a ,unified value ,(or ,set ,of values) ,that ,can ,be ,used ,as ,an ,index ,of the maintainability ,of the ,measured ,system. Tags lit_review maintainability to_read. Selby, R. W. and V. R. Vasili,(1991): Analyzing Error-Prone Systems Structure, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 17, 1991, pp. 52--60. Oman, (1995): Software Maintainability Metrics Models in Practice, Journal of Defense Software Engineering, 8(11), pp. Software complexity metrics, for example, rarely measure the "inherent complexity" embedded in software systems, but they do a very good job of comparing the relative complexity of one portion of a system with another. What is Software Maintenance . This model described the equation between complexity metrics and maintainability, which can be used to assess the . Cartwright, M. and M. Shepperd (2000): An Empirical Investigation of an Object-Oriented Software System, IEEE Trans. 248--256. 730--1998. Tags. In this paper, we focus on the maintainability characteristic and its 4 sub-characteristics of analyzability, changeability, stability, and testability. This guides the software practitioners to manage the resources optimally. and technical due diligence of emerging technology (VC investments, M&A transactions). Static metrics that are collected by measurements made from system representations such as design, programs, or documentation. Hayes, J.H., S.C. Patel, and L. Zhao (2004): A Metrics-Based Software Maintenance Effort Model, Proc. on Software Maintenance, page 337-344. Various software metrics and models have been developed and described. Henry and Wake proposes a multiple regression model based on the defect correction history of a software system . Boehm, B. W., J. R. Brown, H. Kaspar, M. Lipow, G. McLeod, G., and M. Merritt, (1978): Characteristics of Software Quality, North Holland, 1978. In particular, Oman et al. This paper provides a review of this literature and the related state-of-the-art. 144--148, Pantnagar, India, 2009. Having some heuristics and metrics that measure an application’s source code provides a useful starting point, and observing these metrics over time can identify important trends. What is Software Maintenance . 601--604. There is no substitute for a human reviewer, but even humans can’t analyze the entire code repositories to give a definitive answer. Software Eng., 26(7), 2000, pp. Metrics for assessing a software system's maintainability. predicting web applications maintainability must be used. Among the popular talking points: reports of issues with voting technology and allegations…. IEEE Software. Nupul Kukreja is a Ph.D. candidate in Computer Science at the University of Southern California, and a Computer Scientist at Quandary Peak Research. Another aspect that is equally critical is the ability to understand the requirement, the “what” that is implemented by the code, the “how”. Maintainability is hence an important quality attribute of a service-oriented system. Software Eng., 11(9), 1985, pp. Can you tell, albeit subjectively, whether you think one is more maintainable than the other? The MI is a composite number, based on several unrelated metrics for a software system. His work has had a significant impact on Android security and has helped Google, Samsung, Facebook, and Amazon secure their products. Tools. 751--761. Rizvi, S.W.A., Khan, R.A., "A Critical Review on Software Maintainability Models," Proc. 337–344. Definition: Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM or RMA) are system design attributes that have significant impacts on the sustainment or total Life Cycle Costs (LCC) of a developed system. It was proposed by Oman and Hagemeister in the early nineties. The coronavirus pandemic has added several wrinkles to an already tumultuous election year, marked by partisan disagreement on a variety of topics. He received his M.S. Assessing the maintainability of software product line feature models using structural metrics . 491--496. 7--41. Khairuddin, H. and K. Elizabeth (1996): Software Maintainability Attributes Model, Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, 9(2), 1996, pp: 92--97. Complementarily, the software maintainability is considered a software attribute playing an important role in quality level. Google Scholar; 123. The Object Agency (1996): A comparison of Object-Oriented Development Methodologies, 1996. http://www.toa.com. Proc. Metrics for Assessing a Software System's Maintainability. Dynamic metrics help in assessing the efficiency and reliability of a program while static metrics help in understanding, understanding and maintaining the complexity of a software system. P. Oman, and J. Hagemeister. Product metrics fall into two classes: Dynamic metrics that are collected by measurements made from a program in execution. Li, W., S. M. Henry, D Kafura and R. Schulman (1995): Measuring Object-Oriented Design, Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, 8 (4), Jul/Aug 1995, pp. The set measures method hiding, attribute hiding, method inheritance and attribute inheritance, coupling, and polymorphism. The Maintainabilty Index was introduced in 1992 by Paul Oman and Jack Hagemeister, originally presented at the International Conference on Software Maintenance ICSM 1992 and later refined in a paper that appeared in IEEE Computer. C Classifying metrics for assessing Object-Oriented Software Maintainability Browse by Title Periodicals Journal of Systems and Software Vol. 849--856. IEEE (2001): IEEE Transaction of Software Engineering, 27, pp. Colin Morrel is a Software Security Consultant with over 5 years of experience specializing in application security through static and dynamic analysis. Mr. Kukreja's broad understanding of software engineering stems from his experience working as a researcher and software engineer at academic research labs, industrial research labs, and technology companies. Many organizations assess the maintainability of software systems before they are deployed. For some teams, testability may trump structural/design simplicitly. Paul W. Oman, Jack R. Hagemeister: Construction and testing of polynomials predicting software maintainability. Most software engineers would think of some combination of testability, understandability and modifiability of code, as measures of maintainability.
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