As part of this, Aristotle considers common opinions along with the opinions of poets and philosophers. Sometimes being able to share in the pleasure of one's companions at some expense to oneself, if this pleasure not be harmful or dishonorable. It is [...], Human happiness has been a topic of discussion for thousands of years. ", The vices then, are voluntary just as the virtues are. First, what is good or bad need not be good or bad simply, but can be good or bad for a certain person at a certain time. (In contrast to politics and warfare it does not involve doing things we'd rather not do, but rather something we do at our leisure.) , At the next level, friendships of pleasure are based on fleeting emotions and are associated with young people. Courage was dealt with by Plato in his Socratic dialogue named the Laches. The example Aristotle gives of this is contemplation. They do not esteem what is popularly esteemed, nor what others are good at. According to Aristotle, getting this virtue right also involves:-. Bonds formed for the sake of usefulness are the most brittle. They are apt to act more high-handedly to a person of high station than a person of middle or low standing, which would be below them. Cowardice for example, might specifically cause a soldier to throw away his shield and run. He argues that people's actions show that this is not really what they believe. The opposite is rare, and therefore there is no special name for a person insensitive to pleasures and delight. Aristotle names three things humans should avoid that have to do with character:-. Nicomachean Ethics: Friendship, Virtue and Happiness Essay examples 933 Words4 Pages In the writings of Aristotle, seen in Nicomachean Ethics, it is evident that Aristotle believes that friendship is necessary for a virtuous and therefore happy life. People experienced in some particular danger often seem courageous. , Defining "Flourishing" (eudaimonia) and the aim of the, Questions that might be raised about the definition, From defining happiness to discussion of virtue: introduction to the rest of the Ethics, Books II–V: Concerning excellence of character or moral virtue, Book II: That virtues of character can be described as means, Book III. For as in the Ancient Olympic Games, "it is not the most beautiful or the strongest who are crowned, but those who compete". Returning to the question of anger or spiritedness (thumos) then, Aristotle distinguishes it from desires because he says it listens to reason, but often hears wrong, like a hasty servant or a guard dog. Aristotle even specifically mentions Socrates as an example, but at the same time mentions (continuing the theme) that the less excessive vice is often less blameworthy.  He then divides particular justice further into two parts: distribution of divisible goods and rectification in private transactions. To restore both parties to equality, a judge must take the amount that is greater than the equal that the offender possesses and give that part to the victim so that both have no more and no less than the equal. As an example he gives the case of, Sachs: the human good comes to be disclosed as a being-at-work of the soul in accordance with virtue, and if the virtues are more than one, in accordance with the best and most complete virtue. He argues that this makes it clear that pleasure is good. Also, as with each of the ethical virtues, Aristotle emphasizes that such a person gets pleasures and pains at doing the virtuous and beautiful thing. Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+! Case study of liver fluke, my favourite food essay for kindergarten research paper of cloud computing on ethics Essays nicomachean, death penalty essay example: law essay plan template. So according to Aristotle, anger can be virtuous and rational in the right circumstances, and he even says that a small amount of excess is not something worth blaming either, and might even be praised as manly and fit for command. The treatment of friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics is longer than that of any other topic, and comes just before the conclusion of the whole inquiry. ) People become habituated well by first performing actions that are virtuous, possibly because of the guidance of teachers or experience, and in turn these habitual actions then become real virtue where we choose good actions deliberately. 2007. Book IV Chapter 7. While he does not glorify pleasure seeking, he acknowledges that it is an incontrovertible part of human nature. Aristotle points out that, "Whatever is unfair is lawless, but not everything lawless is unfair," and, "It would seem that to be a good man is not in every case the same thing as to be a good citizen." In book five, Aristotle goes on to speak of justice. Chapters 6–12, First examples of moral virtues, Book IV. This means that although no one is willingly unhappy, vice by definition always involves actions decided on willingly. 2020 © PapersOwl.com - All rights reserved. In another perhaps surprising remark Aristotle specifically notes that such men might be better in a war than even truly courageous people. However, not everyone who runs from a battle does so from cowardice. This is a sort of blind justice since it treats both parties as if they were equal regardless of their actual worth: "It makes no difference whether a good man has defrauded a bad man or a bad one a good one". Even if a temperate person avoids excesses of some pleasures, they still have pleasures. As he says, “the intermediate state is in all things to be praised” (Ross). Some people commit crimes by accident or due to vices other than greed or injustice. Aristotle then turns to examples, reviewing some of the specific ways that people are thought worthy of blame or praise. The vices of paltriness and vulgar chintziness "do not bring serious discredit, since they are not injurious to others, nor are they excessively unseemly". , Leo Strauss notes that this approach, as well as Aristotle's discussion of magnanimity (above), are in contrast to the approach of the Bible.. Aristotle begins his classes on ethics, according [â¦] Definition of the Subject and Nature of the Problem A. Stubborn people are actually more like a person without self-mastery, because they are partly led by the pleasure coming from victory. He concludes what is now known as Chapter 2 of Book 1 by stating that ethics ("our investigation" or methodos) is "in a certain way political". Plato's treatment of the same subject is once again frequently compared to Aristotle's, as was apparently Aristotle's intention (see Book I, as explained above): Every virtue, as it comes under examination in the Platonic dialogues, expands far beyond the bounds of its ordinary understanding: but sōphrosunē undergoes, in Plato's Charmides, an especially explosive expansion – from the first definition proposed; a quiet temperament (159b), to "the knowledge of itself and other knowledges" (166e). Aristotle says that whereas virtue of thinking needs teaching, experience and time, virtue of character (moral virtue) comes about as a consequence of following the right habits. It is the final purpose and will not be the way to achieve other purposes. Nicomachean ethics is the main work of ethics of Aristotle. (Michael Davis translates it as pride. (For this reason, Aristotle is sometimes considered a proponent of a doctrine of a golden mean. While various philosophers had influenced Christendom since its earliest times, in Western Europe Aristotle became "the Philosopher". Aristotle focuses from this on to the idea that pleasure is unimpeded, and that while it would make a certain sense for happiness (eudaimonia) to be a being at work that is unimpeded in some way, being impeded can hardly be good.  Chapter 5 distinguishes three distinct ways of life that different people associate with happiness.. Aristotle begins his musings by explaining that happiness is the motivation for every human action, but every person’s idea of happiness differs. The difference is that this friendly virtue concerns behavior towards friends and strangers alike, and does not involve the special emotional bond that friends have. At first he says this is spoken of in terms of external goods, but he observes that the greatest of these must be honor, because this is what we assign to gods, and this is what people of the highest standing aim at. This book is the last of three books that are identical in both the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics. " The others are a type of justice (1129b in Book V), phronesis or practical judgment as shown by good leaders (1144b in Book VI), and truly good friends (1157a in Book VIII). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Nicomachean Ethics and what it means. Courage means holding a mean position in one's feelings of confidence and fear. Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? , Chapter 12. Indeed, as Burger point out, the approach is also quite different from previous chapters in the way it categorizes in terms of general principles, rather than building up from commonly accepted opinions. True friendships are virtuous because each friend wishes good for the other and helps the other to achieve good ends. The aim of magnificence, like any virtue, is beautiful action, not for the magnificent man himself but on public things, such that even his private gifts have some resemblance to votive offerings. But you can one from Take an example of a doctor who goes to work intoxicated with alcohol, causing erroneous harm to a patient during treatment. As Aristotle points out, his approach is partly because people mean so many different things when they use the word justice. Aristotle said in Book II that—with the moral virtues such as courage—the extreme one's normal desires tend away from are the most important to aim towards. , Aristotle divides actions into three categories instead of two:-. This is something that might be seen amongst professional soldiers, who do not panic at false alarms. Aristotle goes slightly out of his way to emphasize that generosity is not a virtue associated with making money, because, he points out, a virtuous person is normally someone who causes beautiful things, rather than just being a recipient. The discussion focuses on how to reach true happiness, and the relevance of happiness to decision making. Hire writing expert and save your time! It is the possession of all of these virtues of the soul that can help one to achieve completeness. Concerning this point, Aristotle asserts that even though people with a bad character may be ignorant and even seem unable to choose the right things, this condition stems from decisions that were originally voluntary, the same as poor health can develop from past choices—and, "While no one blames those who are ill-formed by nature, people do censure those who are that way through lack of exercise and neglect. Aristotle discusses this subject further in Book VII. It is therefore connected to Aristotle's other practical work, the Politics, which similarly aims at people becoming good. In chapter 3 Aristotle applies to pleasure his theory of motion (kinēsis) as an energeia as explained in his Physics and Metaphysics. , Turning to happiness then, the aim of the whole Ethics; according to the original definition of Book I it is the activity or being-at-work chosen for its own sake by a morally serious and virtuous person. And so practical ethics, having a good character, requires knowledge.  Opinions about the relationship between the two works—for example, which was written first, and which originally contained the three common books, are divided. (Marsilius is for example sometimes said to have influenced the controversial English political reformer Thomas Cromwell.). What is just to fulfill one's need, whereas people err by either desiring beyond this need, or else desiring what they ought not desire.  This is why some modern translations refer literally to greatness of soul. The two un-virtuous extremes are wastefulness and stinginess (or meanness). Because vice (a bad equivalent to virtue) has already been discussed in Books II-V, in Book VII then, first akrasia, and then bestiality are discussed. Being willing to experience pain in the short term for longer run pleasure of a greater scale. Ethics, as now separated out for discussion by Aristotle, is practical rather than theoretical, in the original Aristotelian senses of these terms. Nicomachean Ethics is a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the good life for a human being. Wisdom is aimed at for its own sake, like health, being a component of that most complete virtue that makes happiness. Other types of dishonesty could involve other virtues and vices, such as justice and injustice. London: Palgrave macmillan publishing. Give an example and discuss the three types of friendship that Aristotle addresses in Nicomachean Ethics, book 8, chapters 1â5.Discuss the way in â¦ The Nicomachean Ethics is widely considered one of the most important historical philosophical works and had an important influence on the European Middle Ages, becoming one of the core works of medieval philosophy. Despite the reasons for one’s happiness, every action taken is done so because it is believed it will bring them closer to it. They tend to move slowly and speak with a deep steady voice, rather than being hasty or shrill, which would be due to anxiety. Book IV Chapter 8. Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by W. D. Ross : Table of Contents Book V : 1 With regards to justice and injustice we must (1) consider what kind of actions they are concerned with, (2) what sort of mean justice is, and (3) between what extremes the just act is intermediate. Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. The sense of shame is not a virtue, but more like a feeling than a stable character trait (hexis). If you cannot be extremely angry, how can you ever challenge injustice the world? The temperate person desires the things that are not impediments to health, nor contrary to what is beautiful, nor beyond that person's resources. For one swallow does not make a summer, Thomson: the conclusion is that the good for man is an activity of soul in accordance with virtue, or if there are more kinds of virtue than one, in accordance with the best and most perfect kind. , Chapter 13 starts from pain, saying it is clearly bad, either in a simple sense or as an impediment to things. But in many cases, how to judge what is a mean is not clear, because as Aristotle points out, "if the persons are not equal, they will not have equal shares; it is when equals possess or are allotted unequal shares, or persons not equal equal shares, that quarrels and complaints arise." Aristotle proposes that it would be most beautiful to say that the person of serious moral stature is the appropriate standard, with whatever things they enjoy being the things most pleasant. " In a famous statement, Aristotle makes a point that, like many points in Book 5, is thought to refer us to consideration of Plato's Republic. , Taking this approach, Aristotle begins by saying that the highest good for humans, the highest aim of all human practical thinking, is eudaimonia, a Greek word often translated as well-being or happiness. In the "natural desires" says Aristotle, few people go wrong, and then normally in one direction, towards too much. It looks like you've lost connection to our server. However, it is not enough to find this moderation on occasion, because “the good life will consist of habituation and consecutiveness” (Mysen 44). They are frank in expressing opinions and open about what they hate and love. In trying to describe justice as a mean, as with the other ethical virtues, Aristotle says that justice involves "at least four terms, namely, two persons for whom it is just and two shares which are just. ἔτι δ᾽ ἐν βίῳ τελείῳ. We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. Aristotle does not deny anger a place in the behavior of a good person, but says it should be "on the right grounds and against the right persons, and also in the right manner and at the right moment and for the right length of time". These are even less curable. This latter virtue is a kind of correct respect for honor, which Aristotle had no Greek word for, but which he said is between being ambitious (philotimos honor-loving) and unambitious (aphilotimos not honor loving) with respect to honor. Things that are pleasant by nature are activities that are pleasant in themselves and involve no pain or desire. He queries what it means to be good, just, and ethical. Indeed, they do few things, and are slow to start on things, unless there is great honor involved. Because Nicomachean Ethics originated in Aristotleâs philosophical lectures, itâs not intended to be a comprehensive workâa fact that should be kept in mind when evaluating his ideas. In terms of this approach, pleasure is not a movement or (kinēsis) because unlike the movement of walking across a specific room, or of building a house, or a part of a house, it has no end point when we can say it is completed. "Non-voluntary" or "non willing" actions (, The courage of citizen soldiers. Similarly, there are people who are overconfident simply due to ignorance. The second part of particular justice deals with rectification in transactions and this part is itself divided into two parts: voluntary and involuntary, and the involuntary are divided further into furtive and violent divisions. Practical wisdom is the virtue he dwells upon the longest. He lists the five virtues the soul possesses as art, scientific knowledge, practical wisdom, philosophic wisdom, and intuitive reason. Money making, which Aristotle asserts to be a life based on aiming at what is pursued by necessity in order to achieve higher goals, an intermediate good. , Book IX and the last sections of Book VIII turn to the question of how friends and partners generally should reward each other and treat each other, whether it be in money or honor or pleasure. There are three types of friendships; those formed from love, pleasure, and usefulness. book?Everyone who has even the slightest interest in philosophy Aristotle does not however equate character with habit (ethos in Greek, with a short "e") because real character involves conscious choice, unlike habit. Finally, he asks why people are so attracted to bodily pleasures. (Thus, "NE II.2, 1103b1" means "Nicomachean Ethics, book II, chapter 2, Bekker page 1103, Bekker column b, line number 1". Pleasures can be divided into those of the soul and of the body. Aristotle asserts that even a man possessing every virtue, wealth, health, and pleasure cannot be truly happy without friendship. However, Aristotle’s ideas about man’s purpose in life and how to find happiness are universal to all human beings. Unlike the virtues discussed so far, an unjust person does not necessarily desire what is bad for himself or herself as an individual, nor does he or she even necessarily desire too much of things, if too much would be bad for him or her. It is considered the most mature representative of Aristotelian thought (Armstrong, 2017). It is Book VI in the latter. He describes four types of men; temperate, intemperate, continent, and incontinent. There can be a pleasant end of courageous actions but it is obscured by the circumstances. It is considered the most mature representative of Aristotelian thought. " Domenico di Piacenza relies on this as an authority in his 15th century treatise on dance principles (one of the earliest written documents of the formal principles of dance that eventually become classical ballet). And it will be over a lifetime, because "one swallow does not make a spring". Ethics, unlike some other types of philosophy, is inexact and uncertain. As Burger (2008) points out (p. 212):- "The Ethics does not end at its apparent peak, identifying perfect happiness with the life devoted to theōria; instead it goes on to introduce the need for a study of legislation, on the grounds that it is not sufficient only to know about virtue, but one should try to put that knowledge to use." While this is consistent with the approach Aristotle said he would take in Book I, in contrast to the approach of Plato, there is long running disagreement concerning whether this immersion within the viewpoint of his probable intended readership is just a starting point to build up to more general conclusions, for example in Book VI, or else shows that Aristotle failed to successfully generalize, and that his ethical thinking was truly based upon the beliefs of a Greek gentleman of his time. Aristotle says speculations (for example about whether love comes from attractions between like things) are not germane to this discussion, and he divides aims of friendships or love into three types—each giving feelings of good will that go in two directions: Two are inferior to the other because of the motive: friendships of utility and pleasure do not regard friends as people, but for what they can give in return.